What is Fidyah Siyam فدية الصيام ?
Fidyah Siyam is a fee that is paid to recompense a deficiency in the accomplishment of the worship of fasting. Fidyah payment is made when someone is ill with no hope of recovery or of extreme age. A muslim who cannot fast for the required number of days in Ramadhan and will not be able to make up for the fast, should feed a poor person for each day of fast missed. According to some school of thought, a pregnant woman and a breastfeeding mother who missed their fast of Ramadhan are required to make Fidyah payment. A person who did not make up for the missed fast within the next month of Ramadhan without a valid reason should also make Fidyah Payment.
Evidence for Fidyah Siyam فدية الصيام
وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ
And upon those who are able [ to fast ,but with hardship] – a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day] – (Surah Baqarah, Verse 184)
Ibn ‘Abbas commented on the verse : It refers to old men and old women who are not able to fast, so they should feed a poor person for each day. – (Bukhari)